Expertise Layers High Resolution GIF

Reading Apostle

Artist:
Ferdinand Bol (1616 Dordrecht – Amsterdam 1680)
Jan Lievens (1607 Leiden – Amsterdam 1674) : old attribution
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15.7.1606 Leiden – Amsterdam 4.10.1669)
: old attribution

Frontside Visible

Author: Uwe Golle, Carsten Wintermann
Klassik Stiftung Weimar- Graphic art collections

Measurements: 365 x 262 mm

Technique: Preliminary drawing with pen in iron gall ink, brush in soot ink,
partly wiped, gray wash, charcoal, red chalk, white chalk and lead white

Dating: about 1640
Second half of the 1630s (RKD)
about 1629 (Münz)

Backside

The full-surface mounting was damaged in the past, especially in the edge area. The original support material partly shows thin areas as well as adhesive residues and fold remnants of old mountings.

Backside Visible

Transmitted light

In transmitted light, the thinned areas of the support material are clearly visible. Due to the thickness of the mounting, the paper structure can only be evaluated to a limited extent. In the less heavily painted areas, you can see that the paper structure of the mounting is rotated by 90 ° against the paper structure of the drawing.

Transmitted Light

Paper structure

In the automatically generated image separation, the paper structures of the support material and the mounting are clearly visible and can also be evaluated metrologically. Only in this picture a watermark in the mounting material is detectable. The lettering ‘C.D.’ could not yet be identified.

In addition to the above mentioned thin material areas, now also linings and various patches of tears are clearly visible.

Frontside Phaseshift

Color Samples

Under UV light, notably organic materials are displayed visually enhanced. Iron gall ink also becomes more visible due to the tannins it contains. Especially in the facial area, resp. the beard, the ink lines stand out even from the abundantly applied soot ink. White corrections on the head, arm and tablecloth are clearly visible by fluorescing in blue.

Frontside UV

Drawing Tools

The automatically generated UV false-color-image allows for a holistic visual differentiation of the drawing tools used as well as for fundamental statements about the work’s genesis.

In contrast to the pure UV image, the UVFC image now clearly shows the white corrections in yellow, including the background.

Due to the blue fluorescence, the spots on the lower left stand out significantly. They were not applied as part of the white corrections.

Frontside UVFC

Contour/outline drawing

The infrared image first shows a significant fading of the ink drawing in the area of the head and beard. This supports the assumption that iron gall ink was used.

As soot ink wash was used vigorously, the IR image shows no further details.

Infrared

Drawing material

The infrared false-color-image, which is automatically generated from images of different wave-lengths, clearly shows the distinguishable physical properties of the drawing that have been already discussed for the pure IR image.

However, unlike the pure IR image, the automatically via the X1spectral generated IRFC image clearly separates the wash from other drawing materials.

Now, a red chalk drawing applied at the hemline of the coat as well as the pre-drawing in iron gall ink are clearly visible.

IRFC

Preliminary drawing

Digital reconstruction of the preliminary drawing:

Due to the pixel-precise images of the X1spectral in all wavelength ranges, the pre-drawing can now be digitally reconstructed with the camera's own algorithms.
The performance of this system convinces in direct comparison with the M6 X-ray portal scanner by Bruker Nano GmbH by visualizing the distribution of iron particles from the ink used.
While the RFA scan can not visually distinguish between the iron from the ink and the red chalk used in the cloak hemline, the digital reconstruction with the X1spectral only shows the preliminary ink drawing.

Reconstruction

Reconstruction

RFA

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